并不相同的同义词

“Thesaurus”是什么?动动拇指查一下,它的释义是“分类词典;同义词词典”。你或许会纳闷,“同义词词典”不就是“Dictionary of Synonyms”嘛?而“分类词典”又是什么样的词典呢?其实,“thesaurus”是英语世界所采用的一种以分类进行排序的同义词词典,与采用字母顺序排列的常规词典(dictionary)不同,“thesaurus”更注重对同类、同义词的详尽列举,而不是针对词汇的释义展开解释。对于英语写作者来说,这是一本不可或缺的工具书,它能够为遣词造句、丰富表达提供无限的可能。当然,想要灵活使用同近义词来润色语言,首先要学会对它们进行理解和辨析,这也是同义词之所以近义却又不同“形”的核心所在:有些语气直截了当、有些委婉曲折;有些程度深、有些程度浅;有些搭配物,有些搭配人……词义上的细微差别是一部分,而用法、搭配上的规则是另一部分。前者如happy这类意义宽泛的形容词,对应的同义词就可以来上“好几打”:pleasant、joyful、delighted、glad、contented、merry、gleeful、jocular、jolly……查阅词典辨析一下,你会发现gleeful有点高兴过了头,常带有“幸灾乐祸”的味道;而contented则“从不逾矩,知足常乐”;jolly则更加贴近生活,所表达的“快乐”轻松而又惬意。后者的经典案例则可以看一下lonely和alone的辨析:alone既可以作形容词也可作副词,而lonely只能作形容词;在都作形容词用的前提下,alone常与be动词连用,在句中作表语,而lonely则既可作定语,又可作表语,带有浓厚的感情色彩——“孤独的、寂寞的”;而当alone作副词用的时候,还有诸多其它的用法……学会辨析同近义词,其实就是学会了词汇的精准运用——什么时候该说什么话,什么句子该用什么词,表述明白晓畅,谈吐方能得体大方。今天我们就来给同义词分分类,理理顺,从“绝对同义词”到它们不同的“style”,条分缕析地来看看它们相似的外表下,藏着什么样不同的DNA。

比较结构之辨析

在英语中,仅仅用两个字母组成的单词便能有极其复杂的用法,比如of、it、at、on、be,还比如说我们今天要讲的——as。虽然是个“小不点”,但它足够“精灵古怪,变化多端”,介词连词副词样样都能当,用法有很多讲究——扫一眼字典就知道——那是洋洋洒洒几十行都讲不完的复杂。要说“as”最有意思的用法,或许就属作副词时用的“as…as”结构了。你会想到“as old as”是“与……年纪一样大”;“as well as”有“和、以及”之意;“as long as”除了本意“与……一样长”之外,还有着“只要……就……”的引申义……归根到底,“as…as”结构是比较结构(comparative structures)中的典型代表之一。与中文中“什么比什么高/低/长/短”的道理不同,英文中的比较结构明显复杂得多,就以“as”为例,除了基本用法“as…as”,还有其否定形式“not so/as…as”、“as much/many…as”、“as+adj.原级+名词词组+as分句”等等变体。再者,与“as…as”结构较为相似,常常在作文和翻译中“大放异彩”的比较结构还有“the more…, the more…”结构,意为“越……就越……”,其中比较级标志“more”还需要根据形容词本身是否具有比较级形式进行灵活变化。可见,这“比较结构”比我们想象的要复杂不少,想要真正掌握好它的用法,仍需要投入不少的精力。今天,我们的微课就将聚焦比较结构,进行一次完整的梳理,辨明用法,融会贯通——敬请收看“Comparative Structures”。

消费不起的“大苹果”

New York has long prided itself the center of finance, fashion, advertising, publishing and the arts. It also may become the leader in a field no city wants to claim: the largest number of residents leaving for a better, affordable life elsewhere.纽约素来以世界的“金融、时尚、广告、出版和艺术中心”自居。但是当下,它也有了一个尴尬的名号:世界上居民“出走”最多的城市,原因便是这里居高不下的物价,使得想要改善生活的居民“远走他乡”,寻找新生活。Back in February, Amazon’s decision of not locating its second headquarters in New York has already revealed the concerning reasons – high taxes, poor public schools, crumbling infrastructure and anti-business climate. According to the US Census Bureau, residents in New York are leaving for lower-cost states, including Florida, Texas and North Carolina.话说今年2月,亚马逊的第二总部决定放弃在纽约落户,其背后的原因也显而易见——纽约税收高昂、公立学校落后、基础设施老旧以及不再友好的商业氛围等。根据美国人口调查局的数据,纽约州的居民正在“出走”,前往消费更低的州定居,包括佛罗里达、德克萨斯和北卡罗来纳等州。Between July 2017 and July 2018, 180,306 people left New York state while 131,746 people moved in-a net loss of 48,560, the largest loss of any state in the United States. In New York City alone, an estimated 277 people leave each day, more than double the estimated 132 who left each day a year ago.在2017年7月至2018年7月间,共计180,306人“逃离”纽约州,移入的居民则只有131,746人——净流出48,560人,是全人口流出最高的州。哪怕是在纽约市这个人人都梦寐以求的地方,平均每天便有277人选择离开,比前一年132人的同期数据整整翻了一倍多。High tax is one of the most prominent issues that caused the exodus. High earners in New York City feel a stiff tax bite. Local government now relies on the top 10 percent to pay about 70 percent of the city's taxes, and the top 1 percent pay more than 90 percent of taxpayers combined.高税收是导致这轮“出走潮”的主因之一:纽约市的高收入群体正面临着极大的税收压力。当地政府现在依靠着最富有的10%的群体贡献全市70%的税收,而最有钱的1%的富人缴纳的税款抵得上九成纳税人缴税的总和。On the other hand, the low earners are also finding it harder to live in the city. The median US household income in 2018 was even 6.2 percent higher than New York City's median household income of $57,782. The average rent for a one-bedroom apartment in Manhattan is $4,222 a month, compared with $1,232 in Dallas. The median sales price for a one-bedroom apartment in Manhattan is now just under $1 million.另一方面,城市的低收入者也发觉日子正在变得越来越不好过。2018年,全美家庭收入的中位数甚至高于以金融业著称的纽约市,前者的收入比后者57,782美元的年收入还要高出6.2个百分点。与此同时,纽约的房价则高得离谱——曼哈顿一套一居室公寓的平均月租竟然高达4,222美元,而在达拉斯只要1,232美元/月。而曼哈顿一套一居室房屋的售价中位数则接近100万美元。Although New York is experiencing the biggest exodus, it is being softened by international migrant inflows. From July 2017 to July 2018, the area welcomed almost 100,000 international migrants. After all, it’s still the Big Apple that everyone wants to take a bite.尽管纽约正在经历有史以来最大的“出走潮”,但实际情况也因为全球移民的不断涌入而显得较为温和。2017年7月至2018年7月间,将近十万名国际移民迁入纽约。毕竟,它仍是人人都想咬一口的“大苹果”。VOCABULARYexodus: n. (大批)离开;出走median: adj. 中间的 n. 中位数inflow: n. 流入

练习 | BBC新闻:约翰逊向欧盟提出建设性建议

BBC新闻:约翰逊向欧盟提出建设性建议燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTBBC News. Hello, I'm Jerry Smit. The British Prime Minister Boris Johnson says he sent constructive and reasonable proposals to the European Union on Britain's planned withdrawal at the end of the month. Speaking at the Conservative Party conference, Mr. Johnson gave few details, but warned Brussels that the only alternative to the plans was a no-deal exit. But he insisted that an agreement could be reached in time. We must have a new relationship with the EU, a positive and confident partnership, and we can do it. And today in Brussels, we are taping what I believe are constructive and reasonable proposals, which provide a compromise for both sides. We will under no circumstances have checks at or near the border in Northern Ireland. The potential return of a hard border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland has been a sticking point in negotiations between the UK and the EU. The BBC's Naomi Grimley says it has led to fears of unrest. If you go and talk to people in the communities along the border, there are real worries that violence there could reemerge. Because if you put in cameras to monitor vehicles very quickly, they could be shot at by paramilitary groups. You might then have to put police in. You might then have to put the army to protect the police. Very quickly, you could see a hard border reemerging in Northern Ireland.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201910/596069.shtml VOCABULARY1. compromise n. (可数名词) compromise (between A and B) a solution to a problem in which two or more things cannot exist together as they are, in which each thing is reduced or changed slightly so that they can exist together 妥协(或折中)方案。例如:This model represents the best compromise between price and quality. 这种型号是价格和质量间的最佳折中方案。2. in / under no circumstances: used to emphasize that sth. should never happen or be allowed 决不;无论如何不。例如: Under no circumstances should you lend Paul any money. 你无论如何都不能借钱给保罗。 Don't open the door, in any circumstances. 在任何情况下都不要开门。3. sticking point n. something that people do not agree on and that prevents progress in a discussion 分歧点;症结。例如:This was one of the major sticking points in the negotiations. 这是谈判中主要的难点之一。4. unrest n. (不可数名词) a political situation in which people are angry and likely to protest or fight 动荡;动乱;骚动。例如: Industrial / civil / social / political / popular unrest工业 / 平民 / 社会 / 政治 / 民众动乱 There is growing unrest in the south of the country. 这个国家的南方日益动荡不安。5. paramilitary adj. a paramilitary organization is an illegal group that is organized like an army 非法军事组织的。例如:a right-wing paramilitary group一个右翼非法军事集团 QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.BBC News. Hello, I'm Jerry Smit. The British Prime Minister Boris Johnson says he sent (Q1) _________________________________ to the European Union on Britain's planned withdrawal at the end of the month. Speaking at the Conservative Party conference, Mr. Johnson gave few details, but warned Brussels that the only (Q2) _______________________ to the plans was a no-deal exit. But he insisted that an agreement could be reached in time. We must have a new relationship with the EU, a (Q3) __________________________________ partnership, and we can do it. And today in Brussels, we are taping what I believe are constructive and reasonable proposals, which provide a (Q4) ______________________ for both sides. We will (Q5) _____________________________ have checks at or near the border in Northern Ireland. The potential return of a hard border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland has been a (Q6) _________________ in negotiations between the UK and the EU. The BBC's Naomi Grimley says it has led to fears of (Q7) _________. If you go and talk to people in the communities along the border, there are real worries that violence there could (Q8) ________________. Because if you put in cameras to (Q9) __________________ very quickly, they could be shot at by paramilitary groups. You might then have to put police in. You might then have to put the army to protect the police. Very quickly, you could see (Q10) ________________________ reemerging in Northern Ireland. KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.BBC News. Hello, I'm Jerry Smit. The British Prime Minister Boris Johnson says he sent (Q1) constructive and reasonable proposals to the European Union on Britain's planned withdrawal at the end of the month. Speaking at the Conservative Party conference, Mr. Johnson gave few details, but warned Brussels that the only (Q2) alternative to the plans was a no-deal exit. But he insisted that an agreement could be reached in time. We must have a new relationship with the EU, a (Q3) positive and confident partnership, and we can do it. And today in Brussels, we are taping what I believe are constructive and reasonable proposals, which provide a (Q4) compromise for both sides. We will (Q5) under no circumstances have checks at or near the border in Northern Ireland. The potential return of a hard border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland has been a (Q6) sticking point in negotiations between the UK and the EU. The BBC's Naomi Grimley says it has led to fears of (Q7) unrest. If you go and talk to people in the communities along the border, there are real worries that violence there could (Q8) reemerge. Because if you put in cameras to (Q9) monitor vehicles very quickly, they could be shot at by paramilitary groups. You might then have to put police in. You might then have to put the army to protect the police. Very quickly, you could see (Q10) a hard border reemerging in Northern Ireland.

练习 | VOA常速:2030年非洲儿童将占全球贫困人口一半以上

VOA常速:2030年非洲儿童将占全球贫困人口一半以上燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTThe United Nations has 17 sustainable development goals. Number one on the list is eradicating extreme poverty by 2030. The world will fall well short of that target according to the latest report from Save the Children and the Overseas Development Institute. It delivers a devastating verdict on global efforts to eradicate extreme poverty among children in Africa.“On our projection, children in Africa will account for around 55 percent of all extreme poverty in the world by 2030.” The report authors say Africa’s children are being left further and further behind and predict that 87 million African children will be born into poverty each year in the 2020s. “On average, women are still having four to five children and it’s the part of the world where poverty is coming down most slowly partly because of slow growth but also because of very high levels of inequality.”An estimated 40 percent of Africans still live on less than one dollar 90 cents a day. “A child born into poverty faces greater risks of illiteracy, greater risks of mortality before the age of five, then they’re between two and three times more likely to die before their fifth birthday. They’re far less likely to escape poverty themselves, which means that they will become the transmission mechanism for poverty to another generation.” The report criticizes African governments for failing to develop coherent policies and also warns that the IMF, the World Bank and other donors are failing in their response. More than 150 world leaders are due to attend the United Nations sustainable development summit later this month in New York and will aim to agree on an agenda for the next 15 years.Dramatic changes in approach are urgently needed, says Watkins. “Transferring more monetary resources to children who are living in poverty has to be part of the solution, but we know also that money is not enough. It’s critically important that these children get access to basic nutritional services, the basic health interventions and the school systems that they need to escape poverty.”The report warns that if poverty reduction targets are not met, the world will also fall well short on other sustainable development goals in education, health and gender equality.Henry Ridgwell for VOA news, London.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201909/595703.shtml VOCABULARY1. verdict n. a decision that is made by a jury in court, stating if sb. is considered guilty of a crime or not (陪审团的)裁定,裁决,裁断。例如: Has the jury reached a verdict? 陪审团作出裁定了吗? The jury returned a verdict (= gave a verdict ) of guilty. 陪审团作出了有罪的裁决。2. mortality n. (可数名词) (technical术语) a death 死亡。例如:hospital mortalities (= deaths in hospital) 医院里的死亡数字3. donor n. a person or an organization that makes a gift of money, clothes, food, etc. to a charity, etc. 捐赠者;捐赠机构。例如: international aid donors (= countries which give money, etc. to help other countries) 国际援助国 She is one of the charity's main donors. 她是这一慈善机构的主要捐赠者之一。 QUESTIONSTASK IListen to the news and answer the following questions.(Q1) What is the United Nations’ first sustainable development goal?(Q2) According to the report, how many African children will be born into poverty each year in the 2020s?(Q3) What does the report criticize African governments for?TASK IIRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.The United Nations has 17 sustainable development goals. Number one on the list is (Q1) ______________________ by 2030. The world will fall well short of that target according to the latest report from Save the Children and the Overseas Development Institute. It delivers a (Q2) _________________ on global efforts to eradicate extreme poverty among children in Africa.“On our projection, children in Africa will account for (Q3) ___________________ of all extreme poverty in the world by 2030.” The report authors say Africa’s children are being left further and further behind and predict that 87 million African children will be born into poverty each year in the 2020s. “On average, women are still having four to five children and it’s the part of the world where poverty is coming down most slowly partly because of (Q4) ____________________ but also because of (Q5) ______________________________.”An estimated 40 percent of Africans still live on less than (Q6) ___________________ a day. “A child born into poverty faces greater risks of (Q7) _________________________, greater risks of (Q8) ___________________ before the age of five, then they’re between two and three times more likely to die before their fifth birthday. They’re far less likely to (Q9) ________________________ themselves, which means that they will become the transmission mechanism for poverty to another generation.” The report criticizes African governments for failing to (Q10) ____________________ and also warns that the IMF, the World Bank and other donors are failing in their (Q11) _______________________. More than 150 world leaders are due to attend the United Nations (Q12) ________________________________________ later this month in New York and will aim to agree on an agenda for the next 15 years.Dramatic changes in approach are urgently needed, says Watkins. “Transferring more monetary resources to children who are living in poverty has to be part of the solution, but we know also that money is not enough. It’s critically important that these children get access to (Q13) _____________, the basic health interventions and the (Q14) ______________ that they need to escape poverty.” The report warns that if poverty reduction targets are not met, the world will also fall well short on other sustainable development goals in (Q15) ______________________________.Henry Ridgwell for VOA news, London. KEYTASK IListen to the news and answer the following questions.(Q1) Eradicating extreme poverty by 2030. (命题出处) The United Nations has 17 sustainable development goals. Number one on the list is eradicating extreme poverty by 2030.(Q2) 87 million. (命题出处) “On our projection, children in Africa will account for around 55 percent of all extreme poverty in the world by 2030.” The report authors say Africa’s children are being left further and further behind and predict that 87 million African children will be born into poverty each year in the 2020s.(Q3) Failing to develop coherent policies. (命题出处) The report criticizes African governments for failing to develop coherent policies and also warns that the IMF, the World Bank and other donors are failing in their response.TASK IIRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.The United Nations has 17 sustainable development goals. Number one on the list is (Q1) eradicating extreme poverty by 2030. The world will fall well short of that target according to the latest report from Save the Children and the Overseas Development Institute. It delivers a (Q2) devastating verdict on global efforts to eradicate extreme poverty among children in Africa.“On our projection, children in Africa will account for (Q3) around 55 percent of all extreme poverty in the world by 2030.” The report authors say Africa’s children are being left further and further behind and predict that 87 million African children will be born into poverty each year in the 2020s. “On average, women are still having four to five children and it’s the part of the world where poverty is coming down most slowly partly because of (Q4) slow growth but also because of (Q5) very high levels of inequality.”An estimated 40 percent of Africans still live on less than (Q6) one dollar 90 cents a day. “A child born into poverty faces greater risks of (Q7) illiteracy, greater risks of (Q8) mortality before the age of five, then they’re between two and three times more likely to die before their fifth birthday. They’re far less likely to (Q9) escape poverty themselves, which means that they will become the transmission mechanism for poverty to another generation.” The report criticizes African governments for failing to (Q10) develop coherent policies and also warns that the IMF, the World Bank and other donors are failing in their (Q11) response. More than 150 world leaders are due to attend the United Nations (Q12) sustainable development summit later this month in New York and will aim to agree on an agenda for the next 15 years.Dramatic changes in approach are urgently needed, says Watkins. “Transferring more monetary resources to children who are living in poverty has to be part of the solution, but we know also that money is not enough. It’s critically important that these children get access to (Q13) basic nutritional services, the basic health interventions and the (Q14) school systems that they need to escape poverty.” The report warns that if poverty reduction targets are not met, the world will also fall well short on other sustainable development goals in (Q15) education, health and gender equality.Henry Ridgwell for VOA news, London.

练习 | NBC新闻:一个八岁小男孩的善良

NBC新闻:一个八岁小男孩的善良燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTOver the last few weeks eight-year-old Connor Crites couldn't wait for school to start. And this year the second grader with autism decided he was ready for a big first step. Ride the bus on his first day of class. He didn't even seem nervous at all, he was ready to go, wide awake. But once at school without his parents, Connor’s anxiety quickly became overwhelming. Until a stranger 8 year old Christian Moore reached out and took his hand. Christian's mom capturing that moment in a picture and a post, I'm so proud of my son.He's a kid with a big heart. The first day of school started off right. For Connor's mother who constantly worries about how the world will treat her son, this was the one thing Connor had asked her for that she couldn't give him, a friend. Asked him if he had fun and he goes I love them. Now the two boys sharing an inseparable bond saying their message to others is simple. Be nice.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201909/594341.shtml VOCABULARY1. autism n. (不可数名词) a mental condition in which a person is unable to communicate or form relationships with others 自闭症;孤独症2. overwhelming adj. very great or very strong; so powerful that you cannot resist it or decide how to react 巨大的;压倒性的;无法抗拒的。例如: The evidence against him was overwhelming. 对他不利的证据确凿,无法抵赖。 The overwhelming majority of those present were in favor of the plan. 绝大多数与会者都赞同这个计划。 an overwhelming sense of loss莫大的失落感 She had the almost overwhelming desire to tell him the truth. 她恨不得要告诉他实情。 You may find it somewhat overwhelming at first. 起初你可能觉得它有些无法抗拒。3. capture v. to succeed in accurately expressing a feeling, an atmosphere, etc. in a picture, piece of writing, film/movie, etc. (用图画、文章、电影等准确地)表达,刻画,描述。例如:The article captured the mood of the nation. 这篇文章把国民的情绪把得很准。4. big heart宽阔的胸怀,高尚的气度5. inseparable adj. if people are inseparable, they spend most of their time together and are very good friends 形影不离的 QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Over the last few weeks eight-year-old Connor Crites couldn't wait for school to start. And this year (Q1) __________________________________ decided he was ready for a big first step. Ride the bus on his first day of class. He didn't even seem (Q2) ____________ at all, he was ready to go, wide awake. But once at school without his parents, Connor’s (Q3) ____________ quickly became overwhelming. Until a stranger 8 year old Christian Moore reached out and took his hand. Christian's mom (Q4) _______________ that moment in (Q5) ____________________, I'm so proud of my son.He's a kid with (Q6) ____________________. The first day of school started off right. For Connor's mother who constantly worries about (Q7) ____________________________, this was the one thing Connor had asked her for that she couldn't give him, a friend. Asked him if he had fun and he goes I love them. Now the two boys sharing an (Q8) ____________________ saying their (Q9) _________ to others is simple. (Q10) ______________________. KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Over the last few weeks eight-year-old Connor Crites couldn't wait for school to start. And this year (Q1) the second grader with autism decided he was ready for a big first step. Ride the bus on his first day of class. He didn't even seem (Q2) nervous at all, he was ready to go, wide awake. But once at school without his parents, Connor’s (Q3) anxiety quickly became overwhelming. Until a stranger 8 year old Christian Moore reached out and took his hand. Christian's mom (Q4) capturing that moment in (Q5) a picture and a post, I'm so proud of my son.He's a kid with (Q6) a big heart. The first day of school started off right. For Connor's mother who constantly worries about (Q7) how the world will treat her son, this was the one thing Connor had asked her for that she couldn't give him, a friend. Asked him if he had fun and he goes I love them. Now the two boys sharing an (Q8) inseparable bond saying their (Q9) message to others is simple. (Q10) Be nice.

第九届教学大赛翻译专业组一等奖冯超说课

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说课点评:余静老师把教学对象设定为二年级下学期的学生,把教学目标设定为:1)学会使用课文中的重点词汇;2)学会合作,参加小组讨论,和3)学会批判性思维。对于设定学生来讲,这三个目标是比较合理的。课程设计中,教学环节形式多样,侧重于词汇学习和表达能力的训练。她使用情景教学法将学生引入相关语境;通过英语释义、学生互相测试和总结,熟悉重点词汇的词义和适用场景。最主要的学生活动是围绕Once in Rome, do as Romans do这个题目展开辩论。最后,让学生写一篇200字的思辨性文章。总体来讲,课程设计内容丰富但中规中矩,在实际授课中应能较好地完成她设定的三个教学目标。余静的英语表达能力较强,但也许是时间紧迫,也出现了一些令人困惑的讲法。比如在第三次课上有一个Q&A环节,她说如果老师不能提供满意的回答(视频7’20”),老师就会给学生布置任务,让他们课后继续思考,帮助其他同学解决这些问题。老师不能回答的问题,让学生课后自己解决?这种安排的逻辑交代的不够清楚。再比如,她设计了三堂90分钟的课,总计应该是270分钟,但她却两次(视频1’31”和8’20”)说课时总长是180分钟。在回答评委问题时,余静的表现自然、敏捷、切题。总体来讲,余静在说课环节体现了较高的商务英语教师的专业素质。点评专家:陈准民教授

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